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By Miguel Ángel Alvarado
The impacts of global climate change are worse than those generated by weapons of mass destruction. According to WHO studies, new patterns of rains, droughts and storms could accelerate the spread of diseases such as malaria and dengue fever in some regions.
The impacts of global climate change are worse than those generated by weapons of mass destruction. To understand global climate change, it is necessary to understand how a greenhouse is generated
What is a Greenhouse
How the greenhouse effect is generated
In a normal situation of the atmosphere, the temperature falls with the altitude, which favors the warmer (less dense) air to rise and drag the pollutants upwards.
In a thermal situation, a layer of warmer air is located over the colder surface air and prevents the latter from rising (denser), so that the pollution is locked in and increases.
The photochemical reactions that originate this type of phenomenon, occur when the mixture of CO2, nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons, emitted by automobiles and atmospheric oxygen occurs, which react induced by sunlight in a complex reaction system that ends forming ozone.
Ozone is a very reactive molecule that continues to react with other pollutants in the air, and ends up forming a set of several dozen different substances such as peroxyacyl nitrate, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, formaldehyde, etc.
Together, these substances can cause serious damage to plants, eye irradiations, respiratory problems, etc.
The regulation of CO2 is carried out in the different reservoirs of the natural environment, let's see:
The amount of CO2 is regulated in the middle by the more or less rapid exchanges that occur between different reservoirs, let's see:
Main causes that generate global warming
1) Breach of the constitutional mandates of the Republics by the Governments.
2) The industrial revolution that brought with it an increase in the production of Carbon Dioxide, without any objection to the environment.
3) Deforestation of Forests.
4) Forest fires.
5) Disorderly demographic growth.
The Governments of the States do not comply with the Constitutional mandates of the Republics.
In the case of El Salvador, the Government violates Article 117 of the Constitution, which states:
- “It is the duty of the State to protect Natural Resources as well as the Diversity and integrity of the Environment, to guarantee Sustainable Development.
- The protection, conservation, rational use, Restoration or substitution of Natural Resources is declared of social interest, in the terms established by law.
- The introduction into the National Territory of Nuclear Waste and Toxic waste is prohibited.
Carbon Dioxide increased by the industrial revolution in the environment. Greenhouse gases, particularly the CO2 produced mostly by the burning of fossil fuels in cars, factories and geothermal plants is one of the main causes of the Greenhouse effect that generate global warming.
Deforestation of Forests:
According to the United Nations UNEP, globally between 10 and 17 million hectares of forests are being deforested per year, of which 4,000 are from El Salvador. In this order, our country has come to occupy the first legacy, being currently the most deforested in Latin America and the Caribbean, with just 1.87% of natural forests compared to Honduras, which has 40% and Costa Rica, 60%. .
Forest fires cause forest loss:
One of the practices that has a direct impact on global warming is the generation of forest fires in rural areas, which come from three causes:
1) The burning of forests by the livestock sector, with a view to strengthening the pasture for their livestock.
2) Forest fires caused by irresponsible people.
3) The indiscriminate felling of forests and the fires of these, carried out by the Peasants to cultivate the land.
Uncontrolled population growth
Humans are multiplying very rapidly, narrowing the physical space on the ground and making little use of airspace. This is another reason why the ecosystems of the Earth and Sea that support us are being depleted, with the successive destruction of forests, coral reefs, contamination of water, air and soil, which are the biological machinery that is it is in charge of processing Carbon Dioxide to return it to the environment in pure oxygen, ecosystems that, as they deplete, produce an imbalance in the natural environment with the increase in CO2, which causes global warming.
Impacts already generated by global warming:
Among the impacts already generated as a product of the chemical biological greenhouse effect reactions, we can record the following:
- Impact on the stratosphere.
- Impact on the atmosphere.
- Impact on the Oceans and water in general.
- Impact on the ground.
- Impact on human health.
Impact on the stratosphere:
A wide scientific sector has concluded that the origin of the damage to the ozone layer is due to the increase in concentrations of chlorine and Bromine in the stratosphere, such as the disinfectant of seedlings methyl bromide.
The following satellite photograph taken in 2005 shows us the damage caused to this layer to date.
Impact on the atmosphere
The IPCC studies on climate change express that changes in the atmosphere, climate and terrestrial biological system reached in the 20th century:
- The global mean surface temperature increased from 0.2 to 0.6 ° C. And the Earth's surface has warmed more than the Oceans (Very likely 90 to 99%).
- The surface temperature of the Northern Hemisphere increased during the 20th century, more than in any other century in the last 1,000 years. The 1990s were the warmest of the millennium, rising from 66 to 90 ° C. And as of this 21st century, 2005 was the warmest year in the last 10,000 years.
Impact on the Oceans
According to Christian Aid, a UK-based charitable organization, at least 1 billion people could be left homeless between now and 2050 as a result of global warming.
By this 21st century, glaciers and ice sheets are projected to continue their thawing. The Northern Hemisphere will decrease its snow cover even more, the same could happen with Permafrost and the extent of Sea ice. The Antarctic ice sheet may increase in mass while the Greenland ice sheet loses it.
As the glaciers at the poles thaw according to scientific predictions, the oceans could grow to a meter or more by the end of this 21st century, which becomes a latent threat to more than one billion people who inhabit the islands of Greenland. Bangladesh, the Philippines, China, Japan, the Caribbean islands of Latin America, etc., etc.
Warming opens a path in the Arctic alternative to the Panama Canal
Global warming is evaporating Arctic ponds.
This is the alarming conclusion of biologist John Smol, professor at Queens University and Director of Research on Climate Change, and Marianne Douglas, professor of atmospheric and earth sciences and director of the Canadian Circumpolar Institute at the University of Alberta.12 August 2007, 17:51 | Source: SOLOCIENCIA.COM
Since 1983, Smol and Douglas have been sampling the water quality and biology of 40 ponds at Cape Herschel, in the east central part of Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic. Polar ecosystems are very sensitive to climate change. In many respects, they are like the "miners' canaries" on the planet, and are showing the first warning signs. The photograph on the side shows us what is happening.
Impact on water globally
The 2003 UN water report predicts that “by the middle of this century, in the worst case scenario, about 7 billion people in 60 countries will suffer from water shortages and that in the best scenario it will be 2 billion people in 48 countries, one of the causes of scarcity being global climate change. In fact, the problem is so serious that in the future water will compete with fuels.
One billion people affected by climate change
In the world there are too many rivers affected by hydroelectric dams and uncontrolled demographic development that affects the environment at a global level, which is why they are losing their flow and generating floods that already affect more than one billion people.
This is how a group of scientists from four different countries concluded in a study carried out for the Global Climate Change program of the United Nations Agency for the Protection of the Environment (EPA). The specialists asked in turn, that management measures be taken to protect ecosystems and populations, before the problems multiply as a result of global climate change.
Impact on land:
About species, food and coastal areas
- The United Nations Intergovernmental Group on Climate Change (IPCC), considers that by the end of this century 40% of all species will be extinct and that harvests in South and Central Asia could fall by up to 30%, which He envisions a bleak future for humanity of famine and increasing poverty.
- Likewise, losses of 30% of all humid coastal areas are estimated, due to the melting of glaciers that would cause the growth of the oceans.
Impact caused by climate change :
The 29 atolls that make up the Marshall Islands, populated by some 57,000 people, are more threatened than ever in their history, as rising sea levels are washing away their beaches. None of these 1,225 small islands, covered by palm trees, has an elevation of more than two meters above Sea level.
Impact on human health
According to WHO studies, new patterns of rains, droughts and storms could accelerate the spread of diseases such as malaria and dengue fever in some regions. Climate change will exacerbate health crises in many countries where hospitals already have problems and where there are very few medical personnel and unequal access to drugs, warns the head of the World Health Organization (WHO).
WHO Director-General Margaret Chan said that "diseases and conditions sensitive to climate change are already creating enormous problems for many countries ... The impact of climate change can act as an amplifier."
IPCC Recommendations to Reduce Global Warming
1) The Kyoto protocol signed by the convention of industrialized countries in 1997 and in force since 2005, establishes as an objective entrusted by the IPCC, a 5% reduction in the production of carbon dioxide, compared to the values of 1990, before 2012. The United States Government has so far refused to sign it, claiming that it would affect its industrial development, followed by China, which has not signed it either.
Proposal of the British Government and struggle of the peoples.
2) The British Government published on November 23, 2006 the most complete study on the costs and economic risks of global warming and the measures that could reduce the emissions of gases that cause the greenhouse effect.
3) The report emphasized that it is already a question of whether we can do something against global warming of the planet, if not whether we can afford to do nothing. The report proposed a program whose cost would be equivalent to only 1% of annual consumption, in order to avoid risk costs five times higher for the World.
4) At present, it is no secret to anyone that global warming is affecting all of humanity. The constant dissemination of the serious phenomenon that affects us through the television and press media has allowed the population to raise its level of consciousness, organization and struggle, demanding that governments respect the environment and comply with the Kyoto agreements.
S. G, Association of Environmental Communities of El Salvador, ACAES-ACAPb -F.D.C.